HIV fingerprinting in forensics is extremely problematic.
Why? It can *not* prove direct transmission beyond reasonable doubt.
The reason: indirect transmission can never be ruled out (for the reason see below).
So… if there is a “match” between suspect and victim with control samples all non-matching:
1. An unknown could have infected both.
2. The suspect could have infected an unknown who then infected the victim.
3. The victim could have infected an unknown who then infected the suspect.
4. The victim could have infected the suspect.
5. Unknown A could have infected the victim and unknown B. Unknown B then have infected the suspect.
6. Etc. etc.
Unlike fingerprinting and DNA fingerprinting no likelihood can be established of a full match. Even within one individual two samples will never have a full match. Calling it fingerprinting does philogenetic testing disservice and confuses the heck out of judges and jurors.